This is a self-reflection of the real-life projects completed for real clients by student teams during the past two years of the rigorous M.S. program in OPWL at Boise State University. The M.S. program is well-structured to help graduate students achieve the 10 HPT standards based on four ISPI principles, following a systematic process, and agreeing to a code of ethics (Pershing, 2006), which are summarized below.
1. Focus on results and help clients focus on results:
We always began working on our real life projects with a focus on results that our clients wished to achieve, but were unable to do so due to the performance gap that existed between the optimal/desired performance and typical/actual performance. We aligned the results with the strategic business goals of client organizations that helped us to accurately identify and define the performance gap in measurable terms by conducting a performance analysis that included a gap, organization, and cause analysis.
2. Look at workplace performance issues systemically in the larger context:
We ensured to view existing workplace performance issues in the larger context in which they occurred by considering the probable competing pressures, scarcity of resources, and any anticipated change that organizations planned to make in near future by obtaining related and relevant data from multiple sources. Thereby, we were able to triangulate and critically analyze the data to arrive at systemic conclusions.
3. Add value from how we do the work and through the work itself:
We ensured to add value to the client organizations with a focus on results and aligning them with the strategic goals of organizations at the micro, macro, and mega levels, and all phases of working on the real-life projects such as analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation.
4. Utilize partnerships or collaborate with clients and other experts as required:
We ensured to work in partnership by collaborating with the clients and employees of organizations at all levels to obtain evidence-based data from the beginning to completion of our team projects. We also ensured to collaborate with our teammates and professors to share and confirm our thoughts and ideas regarding the combination of HPT models and tools used for data collection and analyses to provide recommendations that obtain value added results to the client organizations.
5. Be systematic throughout the process of resolving performance issues, including the assessment of the need or opportunity:
We followed a systematic process to assess the needs or opportunities related to workplace performance issues and resolve them, to assist the employees of client organizations to achieve their strategic goals while working on the real-life projects.
Figure 1: Infographic word cloud to depict the key terms of the article.
6. Be systematic throughout the process, including the analysis of the work and workplace to identify the cause for a performance issue:
We followed a systematic process to analyze a workplace performance issue using the Bronco Instructional Design (BID) model, which is similar to the ADDIE model. We conducted a performance analysis that included a gap, organization, and cause analysis, followed by a learner and task analysis by obtaining data from multiple sources, as the first step of finding a solution for the performance issue related to our Instructional Design project.
We conducted a performance analysis using pre-training evaluation data to identify and define the performance gap between the optimal and actual performance of employees at the client organization related to our Needs Assessment project.
We used the Training Impact Model (TIM) to establish a link between the self-paced e-Learning (SPeL) program and job aids, and the strategic goals of the client organization related to our Evaluation project. The TIM helped us comprehend and analyze the structure of the evaluand in terms of means and intended results.
7. Be systematic throughout the process, including the design of the solution or specification of the requirements of the solution:
We were systematic in designing customized performance interventions to resolve the performance issues of our clients. We designed a scenario-based role play training program based on the results of triangulated data analyses obtained from multiple sources from the previous phase using various HPT models/tools such as Mager’s three-part method of writing job-focused instructional objectives to design a job aid, and performance assessment checklist for our Instructional Design project.
We designed a Needs Assessment framework to obtain data from multiple sources at multiple stages using Gilbert’s BEM and Langdon’s Language of Work model. We then developed a codebook by breaking down the various levels and domains of each model into factors, subfactors, and variables based on conditions and behavior relevant to the identified performance gap for our Needs Assessment project.
We used Scriven’s (2007) Key Evaluation Checklist as a framework to plan the summative evaluation and report its results. The team designed an Evaluation framework using Kirkpatrick’s four-level model of evaluation to collect data from multiple sources related to how the SPeL training program affected trainees’ reaction, learning in terms of knowledge and skill transfer, change in behavior, and business results for the client organization from multiple sources. We used Brinkerhoff’s (2006) Success Case Method (SCM) as a framework to evaluate the outcomes of a training program related to Kirkpatrick’s levels 3 and 4. Finally, we designed an evaluation rubric to analyze data obtained during the process of evaluation.
8. Be systematic throughout the process, including the development of all or some of the solution and its elements:
We adhered to a systematic process of developing performance improvement interventions based on the design of customized solutions from the previous phase. We developed an Instructional Plan and real life scenario assessments for a scenario-based role-play training program using the analysis documents, job aid, and performance assessment checklist, based on David Merrill’s First Principles of Instruction.
We applied codes from the codebook to both the quantitative and qualitative multi-stage data obtained from multiple sources for analyses using the two Needs Assessment frameworks designed during the previous phase. Thereby, we arrived at the root causes of the performance issue and developed recommendations of performance improvement interventions.
We applied the evaluation rubric designed during the previous phase to analyze both the quantitative and qualitative data obtained from multiple sources using triangulation and critical multiplism. Thereby, we arrived at the strengths and weaknesses of all three evaluation dimensions and provided recommendations to eliminate the weaknesses of the SPeL training program.
9. Be systematic throughout the process, including the implementation of the solution:
Our Instructional Design project team lead is actively involved in assisting our client implement the scenario-based role-play training program at the client organization.
We ensured to help our client implement the developed performance improvement interventions to resolve workplace performance issues in a systematic manner by prioritizing them to meet the immediate needs of our client while working on our Needs Assessment project using multi-criteria analysis. Our Needs Assessment project team lead is actively involved in assisting our client to implement our prioritized recommendations of performance improvement interventions at the client organization.
Our Evaluation project team lead is actively involved in assisting the client to implement our prioritized recommendations of performance improvement interventions to eliminate the weaknesses of the self-paced e-Learning program and enhance its quality at the client organization.
10. Be systematic throughout the process, including the evaluation of the process and the results:
We conducted a formative evaluation of the instructional materials for the scenario-based role-play training program designed and developed by our Instructional Design project team to arrive at data-driven decisions to improve it further during the development phase of our project before delivering it to our client for its implementation.
We followed a systematic process to conduct a summative evaluation of the performance improvement intervention of a SPeL training program implemented by the client organization. We used various HPT models such as the Training Impact model, Kirkpatrick’s four-level model of evaluation, and Brinkerhoff’s Success Case method to perform a thorough summative evaluation of the training program by obtaining data from multiple sources and all levels of the client organization. Then, we analyzed the data using triangulation and critical multiplism based on an evaluation rubric to arrive at an informed decision regarding the overall quality of the SPeL training program and provide recommendations to our client.
Therefore, it can be concluded that we were able to focus on results and help our clients focus on results, view performance issues systemically in the larger context, work in partnership by collaborating with clients, stakeholders, teammates, and professors, to provide value-added results to the client organizations, while working on real-life projects with real clients. We also ensured to follow a systematic process and adhere to a code of ethics. Thereby, we succeeded in assisting the employees of client organizations to achieve the strategic goals that help their organizations obtain ROI, along with working for the wellbeing of the community, environment, and society, to develop into sustainable organizations. Hence, we were able to achieve the ten HPT standards based on four ISPI principles that assist HPT practitioners to succeed as entrepreneurs in the 21st century (Pershing, 2006).
Do you have any other ideas to achieve the ten HPT standards based on four ISPI principles that assist HPT practitioners to succeed as entrepreneurs in the 21st century? If so, please reply to this post with your comments.
Brinkerhoff, R. O. (2006). Telling training’s story: evaluation made simple, credible, and effective. San Francisco, CA: Berett-Koehler Publishers.
Pershing, J. A. (2006). Handbook of Human Performance Technology (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.
Scriven, M. (2007). Key evaluation checklist. Retrieved from http://www.wmich.edu/evalctr/archive_checklists/kec_feb07.pdf